Thanks for sharing this information. I had a brief look at the paper “Android Mobile OS Snooping By Samsung, Xiaomi, Huawei and Realme Handsets” published by the authors Haoyu Liu, Paul Patras, Douglas J. Leith.
As written in this paper, the authors investigated a
Google Pixel 2/Android 10 with LineageOS build 17.1-20210316, opengapps 10.0-nano-20210314.
Furthermore, I found the following statements in the paper:
Apart from Google’s GApps, no third-party system apps on the LineageOS handset were observed to perform data collection.
On LineageOS it is necessary to install GApps to use the Google Play store, but this is not necessary with /e/OS (which uses the open-source MicroG re-implementation of Google Play Services and the Google Play app).
The volume of data uploaded by Google varies across the handsets. It is zero for /e/OS, since it uses the MicroG open source re-implementation of Google GApps.
These differences are likely related to different configurations of Google GApps e.g. on LineageOS the so-called nano version of GApps was installed (other options includes micro, mini, full, stock19).
Please correct me, if my conclusion is wrong, but since iodé also uses MicroG rather than GApps, should iodé not be as discreet as /e/?